Operant conditioning: effectiveness and welfare implications

Australia has one of the highest dog ownership rates in the world, with many dog owners reporting one or more problem behaviours in their dogs.  Although classical conditioning is utilised in dog training, trainers primarily use operant conditioning.  Operant conditioning is the acqui

Optimism in dogs

Optimism in humans refers to a tendency to expect more positive outcomes in life than negative. Animals have been shown to possess similar biases depending on whether they may be feeling “happy” or “unhappy”. Like humans, animals that are in a positive emotional state expect more posi